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Electroencephalography (EEG) for the detection of electrical signals in the brain by means of electrodes placed on the scalp. The EEG presents oscillations at different frequencies that can be associated with different attentional and cognitive states related to decision-making processes. The EEG data recorded with different instruments allow to obtain indications on the degree of activation of the different brain areas on a Scalp Map.
Facial Expression allows the analysis of facial emotions with Face Reader and with FACS evaluation system for the analysis of facial micro-expressions. The Face Reader is a software able to recognize the emotions felt by a subject through the recognition of facial expressions not controllable by the person. It integrates the analysis techniques of Facial Coding (FACS) carried out with the involvement of an expert for the evaluation of micro-expressions.
Reaction time or latency time measurement is a necessary tool to measure implicit attitudes. Among the tools used there is the Implicit Test (IAT), a software useful to study people's implicit attitudes and preferences through the measurement of response times in association tasks.
Breathing is detected by two sensors, one diaphragmatic (located at pectoral muscle level) and one abdominal (located at navel level). Together with the other biological signals and especially those of the heart, breathing is a further parameter for measuring emotional activation and is related to the emotions of fear, anger, joy and sadness.e.
Electromyography measures the level of contraction of muscles such as shoulders or zygomatic and corrugator muscles of the face. The contraction of these muscles is closely related to emotional states.
Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) for the measurement of skin sweating caused by emotional stimulation. Skin Conductance is a measure of the level of arousal, i.e. the level of activation of the body, characterized by a heightened attentional-cognitive state of vigilance and/or emotion.
Electrocardiography (ECG) for the measurement of the heartbeat from which two interesting indices are derived for the evaluation of emotional activation: Heat Rate (HR) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). Heart Rate Variability includes heart rate measurements per minute and provides a measure of the autonomic nervous system activation associated with emotional states.
Eye-tracking (fixed or mobile) for the detection of fixation and eye tracking. The instrument is able to monitor the movement of the eyes, returning as output an eye tracking that determines with absolute precision the entire path taken by the eye during vision. In addition to this, there is the electro-oculography (EOG) for the measurement of pupil dilation and eye-blinking). Pupillary dilation indicates the degree of activation (not controllable) of the eye.
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